The ACT science section is composed of 40 questions which you are given 35 minutes to complete. Those 40 questions are made up of three types of questions, Data Representation, Research Summaries, and Conflicting Viewpoints.
For each type of question, you will be given a short passage containing all of the necessary information to answer the questions. Passages may be descriptions of experiments, graphs and charts, or a combination of any of these things.
ACT Science Section Breakdown
There are a total of 7 passages with 5-7 questions on each passage.
- Data Representation
- 3 passages, 5-6 questions per passage
- Research Summaries
- 3 Passages, 5-6 questions per passage
- Conflicting Viewpoints
- 1 Passage, 7 questions per passage
Data Representation (30-40% of the exam)
This type of question focuses on your ability to read and interpret graphs, scatterplots and tables.
For questions of this nature, you will be given information in one or more of these formats along with a small amount of background information. Read the passage thoroughly and then answer each of the questions based on the informing you just read.
The question to the right is taken from a practice test on ACT’s free student test prep website. By interpreting the information in the table, the student should be able to extrapolate that the correct answer is D, 130 degrees Celsius. This can be easy explained–since the granite has a thermal conductivity of 2.8 at 121 degrees Celsius, and the shale has a thermal conductivity of 1.57 at 146 degrees Celsius, the welded tuff falls between the two with a thermal conductivity of 1.8, which means that the temperature would also fall between the two. D, is the only option that fits the criteria.
Research Summaries (45-55% of the exam)
Research summaries are questions that focus on the experiment design and interpretation of results.
For these questions you will be given a passage which describes an experiment or two, and asked to identify different parts of the experiment, as well as identify any errors, and interpret the results.
Many of these questions have to do with the scientific method, so read the passage thoroughly and refer back to it while answering the questions.
Conflicting Viewpoints (15-20% of the exam)
Much like questions covering research summaries, the questions on conflicting viewpoints will focus on the results of an experiment, or the interpretation of results. The difference comes from the fact that you will be given the interpretation of results rather than doing the interpretation.
As with each other science question, you will be given a passage to read. Passages on conflicting viewpoints generally give a bit of background and then interpretations, hypothesis, or theories from two different scientists. The questions, like the one above, will test your understanding, but also your ability to analyze, and differentiate between the two viewpoints.
Key Terms to Know for the ACT Science Section
Hypothesis – A question or idea being tested in a scientific experiment.
Variable – One part of an experiment that is altered to see how it effects the outcome.
Control – A version of an experiment where the variable you are attempting to test stays the same in order to prove that changing that variable is what leads to the change of outcome.
Correlation – When two variables seem to change in relationship to one another. e.g., as X increases, Y also increases. It’s important to remember that many variables can be correlated, and that does not necessarily mean that they causing one another to change–there may be another variable that causes both of them to move independent of one another.
Causation – When a change in one variable is proven or shown to cause a change in another variable. This goes beyond correlation and has been proven, through a scientific experiment, to actually be a cause for the change observed in an experiment.
Key Concepts to Know for the ACT Science Section
Experiment design – This refers to the specific steps and circumstances under which an experiment takes place. It’s important to know that well-designed experiments need to isolate single, specific variables to be tested individually. If multiple variables are changing throughout each test, then it’s impossible to prove which one caused the end result.
Direct relationship – Data that is said to have a direct relationship will move in the same direction. For example, if you increase Y, X also increases. If you decrease Y, X also decreases.
Inverse relationship – This is the opposite of a direct relationship. Two variables that, while are correlated, move in opposite directions. As Y increases, X decreases, for example.
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